Appeal from a judgment of the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York, Charles M. Metzger, J., entered after a jury trial, awarding aggregate damages of $61,003 for defamation to the appellees, and from prior orders denying summary judgment, denying a directed verdict, and denying judgment notwithstanding the verdict. Reversed. Judgment for defendants-appellants dismissing the complaint.
Kaufman, Chief Judge, Clark, Associate Justice*fn* and Jameson, District Judge.*fn**
In a society which takes seriously the principle that government rests upon the consent of the governed, freedom of the press must be the most cherished tenet. It is elementary that a democracy cannot long survive unless the people are provided the information needed to form judgments on issues that affect their ability to intelligently govern themselves. As we said in James v. Board of Education, 461 F.2d 566, 572, "To preserve the 'marketplace of ideas' so essential to our system of democracy, we must be willing to assume the risk of argument and lawful disagreement." In the thirteen years since New York Times v. Sullivan, 376 U.S. 254, 11 L. Ed. 2d 686, 84 S. Ct. 710 (1964), the federal courts have steadfastly sought to afford broad protection to expression by the media, without unduly sacrificing the individual's right to be free of unjust damage to his reputation. See, e.g., Gertz v. Robert Welch, Inc., 418 U.S. 323, 41 L. Ed. 2d 789, 94 S. Ct. 2997 (1974); Rosenbloom v. Metromedia, Inc., 403 U.S. 29, 29 L. Ed. 2d 296, 91 S. Ct. 1811 (1971); Time, Inc. v. Pape, 401 U.S. 279, 28 L. Ed. 2d 45, 91 S. Ct. 633 (1971); St. Amant v. Thompson, 390 U.S. 727, 20 L. Ed. 2d 262, 88 S. Ct. 1323 (1968); Curtis Publishing Co. v. Butts, 388 U.S. 130, 18 L. Ed. 2d 1094, 87 S. Ct. 1975 (1967). This important case requires us to return again to this task.
We are invited today to affirm a libel judgment against the New York Times for accurately reporting dramatic statements of the National Audubon Society attacking the good faith of prominent scientists supporting continued use of the insecticide DDT. There can be little doubt that the Times reasonably considered these accusations of a leading environmentalist organization to be newsworthy. We are further requested to affirm judgments against Roland Clement, a Vice-President of the Society, despite the absence of any evidence in the record that he endorsed or made the single statement that could be found to have been libelous under the Constitution. We are convinced that the First Amendment requires us to decline these invitations. Accordingly, we will reverse and order the complaint dismissed.
A brief summary of the facts is indispensable to understanding the difficult legal issues presented by this appeal.
The DDT debate. The publication fifteen years ago of Rachel Carson's Silent Spring set off a furious controversy that, even today, continues to rage around the insecticide DDT. Naturalists and environmentalist groups like the National Audubon Society have vigorously opposed DDT because, in their view, use of the chemical endangers bird life. Proponents of the pesticide deny this charge and forcefully urge that, without DDT, millions of human beings will die of insect-carried diseases and starvation caused by the destruction of crops by insect pests.
As might be expected when such fundamental questions of value enter the debate, at times the DDT controversy has exceeded the limits of temperance and good manners. Naturalists have insinuated that many proponents of DDT are unduly influenced by the selfish interests of the pesticide industry. On the other hand, such an outstanding advocate of DDT as appellee Dr. J. Gordon Edwards, has characterized a ban on export of the insecticide, supported by the Audubon Society, as "deliberately genocidal."*fn1 Accusations of scientific bad faith have unfortunately become almost commonplace on both sides.
Arbib's "Foreword" to American Birds. The scientists who advocate continued use of DDT respond to charges that the chemical destroys bird life by citing the annual Audubon Society Christmas Bird Count, which shows a steady increase in bird sightings despite the growing employment of pesticides in the last thirty years. The Audubon Society believes this is an invalid use of its statistics because there are many more bird counters now and because bird watchers have grown more skilful in recent years with better access to observation areas. This dispute over the interpretation of the Society's statistics lies at the heart of the controversy over DDT's threat to bird life.
By 1972 the DDT controversy was raging at peak intensity,*fn2 and the Audubon Society was acutely alarmed at what it considered the persistent misuse of its Bird Count data. Accordingly, Robert S. Arbib, Jr., a highly respected amateur ornithologist and editor of the Society's publication American Birds, determined to preface his report of the 1971 Christmas Count with a warning against distortion of the results. His foreword to the April, 1972, issue of American Birds, contained the following comment on the Count's significance:
We are well aware that segments of the pesticide industry and certain paid "scientist-spokesmen" are citing Christmas Bird Count totals (and other data in AMERICAN BIRDS) as proving that the bird life of North America is thriving, and that many species are actually increasing despite the widespread and condemned use of DDT and other non-degradable hydrocarbon pesticides.
This, quite obviously, is false and misleading, a distortion of the facts for the most self-serving of reasons. The truth is that many species high on the food chain, such as most bird-eating raptors and fisheaters, are suffering serious declines in numbers as a direct result of pesticide contamination; there is now abundant evidence to prove this. In addition, with the constant diminution of natural habitat, especially salt- and freshwater marshes, it is self-evident that species frequenting these habitats are less common than formerly.
The apparent increases in numbers of species and individuals on the Christmas Bird Counts have, in most cases, nothing to do with real population dynamics. They are the result of ever-increasing numbers of birders in the field, better access to the Count areas, better knowledge of where to find the birds within each area, and increasing sophistication in identification.
With increased local coverage by the press of Christmas Bird Count activities, it is important that Count spokesmen reiterate the simple and truthful fact that what we are seeing is result of not more birds, but more birders. Any time you hear a "scientist" say the opposite, you are in the presence of someone who is being paid to lie, or is parroting something he knows little about.
Despite the potentially explosive character of the allegation that scientists supporting DDT were paid liars, Arbib does not appear to have had any factual basis for the charge. Indeed, he testified that his comment was never intended to portray anyone in particular as a venal prevaricator; rather, it merely expressed his belief that many supporters of DDT use were spokesmen for the pesticide industry.
The New York Times Article. Arbib's general accusations came to the attention of New York Times nature reporter John Devlin in late July, 1972. Devlin immediately realized that the Audubon Society's charges were a newsworthy development in the already acrimonious DDT debate, and he accordingly telephoned Arbib to obtain the names of those the Society considered "paid liars". Arbib was initially reluctant to identify any individuals as the people referred to in his article. But, as a result of Devlin's persistent urging that many eminent persons associated with the pesticide industry might be hurt unnecessarily by the Society's indiscriminate attack, Arbib eventually promised to furnish the names of specific individuals whom he felt were justly subject to the Society's charges.
Arbib, of course, did not know of anyone in particular whom he could with assurance call a "paid liar". He turned, therefore, to Roland Clement, the Audubon Society's Staff Biologist and Vice-President, who more than any other official of the naturalist organization had embroiled himself in the DDT controversy and had knowledge of its participants. Arbib testified that Clement strongly emphasized he could not call anyone specifically a paid liar. He could, however, identify those who had most persistently misused Bird Count data, despite the Society's efforts to point out their error. Clement told Arbib he had just completed an article for an environmentalist journal which listed the scientists whose distortion of the Audubon statistics seemed most egregious,*fn3 and, in Arbib's words,
he believed it would be all right to give the names to Mr. Devlin as long as we qualified this by saying 'We don't have any knowledge of anyone being paid liars, and all we want to say is that they have been consistent misinterpretors of the information in American Birds.'
When Devlin telephoned again for the names, Arbib was prepared with Clement's article. But, Devlin and Arbib sharply disagreed at trial regarding the ensuing conversation. Arbib insisted that he conveyed, in essence, Clement's warning that the scientists discussed in Clement's article were not necessarily "paid liars". Devlin flatly denies that Arbib so cautioned him. He testified that Arbib made it clear that the scientists whose names were furnished to the Times were the persons referred to in Arbib's "Foreword" to American Birds. The list included the names of the appellees - Dr. J. Gordon Edwards, Professor of Entomology at San Jose State College in California, Dr. Thomas M. Jukes, Professor of Medical Physics and Lecturer in Nutrition at the University of California, Berkeley, and Dr. Robert H. White-Stevens, Professor of Biology at The Rutgers University in New Jersey - as well as Nobel Laureate Norman Borlaug and Dr. Donald Spencer, a lecturer of the National Agricultural Chemical Association. All of the accused were eminent scientists, though none were ornithologists.
Upon receiving these names from Arbib, Devlin attempted to secure comments from each of the five accused. He succeeded in reaching three: Dr. White-Stevens, Dr. Jukes, and Dr. Spencer. All of these scientists categorically denied the charges, and Dr. Spencer even referred to them as "almost libelous". Dr. White-Stevens and Dr. Jukes, in addition, sent Devlin voluminous supporting materials setting forth their side of the DDT debate. None of this material, however, responded directly to the Audubon Society's ...