Defendants appeal from judgments of conviction entered in the Southern District of New York, Gagliardi, J., for racketeering conspiracy, racketeering, perjury, obstruction of justice, Taft-Hartley violations, and misuse of pension funds.
Lumbard, Moore and Oakes, Circuit Judges.
Carmine and Peter Romano appeal from judgments of conviction entered on February 5, 1982, in the Southern District of New York, following a jury trial presided over by the Hon. Lee P. Gagliardi. The Romanos were convicted for their roles in a racketeering conspiracy to extract protection money from the wholesalers in the Fulton Fish Market. They accomplished this through their control of the union representing the workers in the market. Specifically, both defendants were convicted of conspiracy to violate the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act ("RICO"), 18 U.S.C. § 1962(d); of violating RICO, 18 U.S.C. § 1962(c); and of aiding and abetting violations of the Taft-Hartley Act, 29 U.S.C. § 186(b) (1) and 18 U.S.C. § 2. In addition, Carmine Romano was convicted of misusing union pension funds, 18 U.S.C. § 1954 and 18 U.S.C. § 2; and Peter Romano was convicted of obstruction of justice, 18 U.S.C. § 1503, and perjury before a grand jury, 18 U.S.C. § 1623. Prior to jury deliberations, the government dropped one count of extortion, 18 U.S.C. § 1951, charged against Carmine. The court sentenced Carmine to twelve years in prison and a fine of $20,000; Peter received a sentence of eighteen months' imprisonment. Finding no errors in the district court's rulings of law or in its conduct of the trial, we affirm.
In October 1981, the Romanos were charged in a 167-count indictment. Their alleged co-conspirators were severed prior to trial and the Romanos were tried on a redacted indictment of 94 counts.
Count One charged the defendants with conspiring to conduct the affairs of the Fulton Fish Market through a pattern of racketeering activity, in violation of 18 U.S.C. § 1962(d). The predicate acts of racketeering activity were alleged to include "among other things, acts of extortion in violation of Title 18, United States Code, Sections 1951 and 2; payment and receipt of illegal labor payments in violation of Title 29, United States Code, Section 186 and Title 18, United States Code, Section 2; misuse of welfare and pension plan funds in violation of Title 18, United States Code, Sections 1954 and 2; and obstruction of justice in violation of Title 18, United States Code, Section 1503."
Among the objects and means of the conspiracy, it was charged that the defendants: (1) "would and did request and receive through, among other things, the use of fear, cash payments and other things of value from businesses in the Fulton Fish Market;" (2) "would and did request and receive through, among other things, the use of fear, approximately $66,450 from businesses in the Fulton Fish Market, supposedly in return for renting cardboard signs stating that said businesses employed members of Local 359;" (3) "did request and receive through, among other means, the use of fear, payments for businesses in the Fulton Fish Market in return for 'protection' against thefts and robberies, and did operate a protection service known as the Fulton Patrol Service . . .;" and (4) "received for their own use and the use of their relatives and friends numerous things of value in return for depositing the funds of the Fulton Fish Market Welfare and Pension Funds into a particular bank."
Count Two charged the defendants with a substantive RICO violation, 18 U.S.C. § 1962(c). The predicate acts of racketeering activity alleged were the receipt by Carmine and Peter Romano of illegal payments in violation of 18 § 1954; and the obstruction of justice by Peter Romano in violation of 18 U.S.C. § 1503.
Carmine was also charged with twelve counts of violating 18 U.S.C. § 1954 and 18 U.S.C. § 1954 and 18 U.S.C. § 2 in connection with the receipt by him and others of television sets from the Republic National Bank as gifts for sponsoring the opening of new accounts with moneys from the union pension fund.
Counts Fifteen through Sixty and Sixty-one through Ninety-one charged Carmine and Peter respectively with aiding and abetting violations of the Taft-Hartley Act in connection with the rental of cardboard union signs to employers in the Fulton Fish Market for $300 per year. 29 U.S.C. § 186(b) (1); 18 U.S.C. 2.
Carmine was also charged with one count of personally receiving a payment of $300 from the Booth Fisheries Co. in violation of 29 U.S.C. § 186(b) (1). Prior to submission of the case to the jury, the court dismissed, at the prosecutor's request, a count charging Carmine with extortion, 18 U.S.C. § 1951, in connection with the receipt of that payment after the witness to that count failed to testify.
Finally, Peter was charged with perjury before the grand jury, 18 U.S.C. § 1623, and with obstruction of justice, 18 U.S.C. § 1503, in connection with his false statement that he did not possess any materials responsive to a subpoena duces tecum related to the union sign rentals.
The Fulton Fish Market, located just south of the Brooklyn Bridge in lower Manhattan, is the source of most of the fresh fish sold in New York. Every day from about 2 a.m. to about 8 a.m. the market is packed with trucks delivering their perishable cargoes and with customers (mostly retailers and restaurateurs) picking up their day's requirements. The market is composed of two buildings, Old and New Markets, which together house about 80 wholesalers. The approximately 800 employees of these wholesalers, who are members of ...