Appeal from judgments of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York, (Eugene H. Nickerson, Judge) convicting defendants Bienvenido Ulerio and Raphael Abreu, after a jury trial, of conspiring to sell, and of selling, counterfeit United States currency. We reject the claim that submission to the jury of translated transcripts of recorded conversations, with voice attributions in the transcripts identifying defendants, was error. We therefore affirm.
Winter and Miner, Circuit Judges, and Billings, District Judge.*fn*
Bienvenido Ulerio and Raphael Abreu appeal from judgments of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York convicting each, after a jury trial, of conspiracy to sell, and of selling, counterfeit United States currency in violation of 18 U.S.C. §§ 371 and 472 (1982). Ulerio and Abreu claim that Judge Nickerson erred by submitting to the jury transcripts of recorded conversations because the transcripts included voice attributions identifying the defendants. In addition, Ulerio contends that the questioning of him by the court conveyed to the jury the impression of disbelief. We affirm.
The government's evidence showed the following. On July 28, 1987, a confidential informant introduced Secret Service undercover agent Luis Quinones to defendant Raphael Abreu and a second individual named "Gordo". The four men discussed the possibility of Abreu and Gordo selling counterfeit money to Quinones. At the conclusion of the meeting, Abreu took Quinones's telephone and beeper numbers with the understanding that Abreu would subsequently contact Quinones concerning such a sale.
On August 4, Quinones received a call from Abreu. During the ensuing conversation, which was in Spanish, Abreu agreed to sell Quinones $2,000 in counterfeit currency at 3:00 p.m. at a McDonald's Restaurant located on Atlantic Avenue in Brooklyn. This conversation was subsequently translated and transcribed in English.
Quinones, equipped with a recording device, met with Abreu and the confidential informant in Quinones's car at the appointed time and place. Abreu objected to the McDonald's location as being too public and suggested relocating to a position down the street. As Quinones neared that location, a man exited Abreu's car and entered Quinones's car. Quinones identified this man as defendant Bienvenido Ulerio. Once inside Quinones's car, Ulerio produced twenty counterfeit $100 Federal Reserve Notes which he exchanged with Quinones for five genuine $100 bills and two genuine $50 bills that had earlier been photocopied by government agents. After completing the transaction, Ulerio left Quinones's car but returned a few minutes later with Abreu. Abreu and Quinones then discussed a future deal in which Abreu would supply Quinones with an additional $50,000 of counterfeit money. Abreu also provided Quinones with a sample counterfeit $50 bill for Quinones to show to Quinones's supposed boss. These conversations were also in Spanish and later translated and transcribed in English.
Ulerio and Abreu contacted Quinones by telephone twice later that same day. Agent Quinones told the defendants that his boss liked the defendants' counterfeit money and wanted to proceed with the deal for the additional $50,000. A meeting was scheduled for August 7, 1987. This conversation was also in Spanish and later translated and transcribed in English. The August 7 exchange did not take place, however, and on August 10 both defendants were arrested. When arrested, Abreu was carrying $300 of the previously photocopied money in his wallet.
At trial, Judge Nickerson admitted the translated transcripts of the various recorded conversations. These transcripts contained notations identifying the defendants as parties to the various conversations with Quinones. Both defendants testified. They stated that they were the victims of mistaken identity and denied any contact with Quinones.
The defendants concede the accuracy of the content of the translated text of the transcripts admitted at trial. It was therefore not an abuse of discretion to admit the transcripts into evidence and to allow the jury to retain the transcripts during their deliberations. See United States v. Marin, 513 F.2d 974, 977 (2d Cir. 1975) (allowing Spanish-to-English transcript translations into jury room not error); United States v. Koska, 443 F.2d 1167, 1169 (2d Cir.) (per curiam) (allowing jurors to use transcripts not error), cert. denied, 404 U.S. 852, 92 S. Ct. 92, 30 L. Ed. 2d 92 (1971). The only question before us concerns the notations on the transcripts purporting to identify the speakers.
Both defendants testified that Quinones misidentified them as the persons involved in the unlawful transactions. Central to this claim was their assertion that the voices on the recordings were not their own. They contend it was error to admit the transcripts with voice attributions without a limiting instruction cautioning the jurors that the admission of the transcripts did not reflect agreement as to the identities of the speakers and that the accuracy of voice identifications on the transcripts was an issue for determination by the jury. See United States v. Rosenthal, 793 F.2d 1214, 1238 (11th Cir. 1986) (whether transcript correctly identifies speakers question for jury determination), cert. denied, 480 U.s. 919, 107 S. Ct. 1377, 94 L. Ed. 2d 692 (1987).
We disagree. Although such an instruction would surely have been permissible, it was within the district court's discretion to regard it as superfluous. The jury was well aware that appellants denied having any conversations or relationship with Quinones. It also knew that the notations on the transcripts purporting to identify the speakers were based on--and had no evidentiary value greater than--Quinones's testimony. The interpreter who prepared the transcripts testified that the voice attributions on the transcripts came from Agent Quinones. The issue as to whether these voice identifications were accurate was thus identical to the issue of the ...