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State v. Erhardt

Court of Appeals of Connecticut

January 24, 1989

STATE of Connecticut
v.
Gregory ERHARDT.

Argued Oct. 5, 1988.

Page 189

Carl D. Eisenman, Public Defender, for appellant (defendant).

Leon F. Dalbec, Jr., Deputy Asst. State's Atty., with whom, on the brief, was Dennis A. Santore, State's Atty., for appellee (state).

Before DUPONT, C.J., and SPALLONE and FOTI, JJ.

SPALLONE, Judge.

The defendant appeals from the judgment of conviction, rendered after a jury trial, of the crimes of robbery in the first degree, General Statutes § 53a-134(a)(3), and attempt to commit larceny in the first degree by extortion, General Statutes §§ 53a-122(a)(1) and 53a-49. The defendant claims that the trial court erred (1) in denying his request to compel a codefendant to answer "non-self-incriminating" questions, in violation of his right under the Connecticut constitution and General Statutes § 54-153 to compulsory process, and (2) in excluding as hearsay the testimony of a witness concerning what was told to her by an unavailable defense witness. We find no error.

The jury could reasonably have found the following facts. On February 3, 1987, the victim went to the premises at 42 Taylor Terrace in New Milford, a house he owned that was being rented by his daughter and her husband. Lisa Percoco, the defendant's girlfriend, who was a friend of the victim's daughter, was at the residence. The victim and Percoco were in a bedroom, partially dressed, engaging in sexual activity when the defendant entered the room and represented by his actions that he was photographing them. While the victim was attempting to dress, he was attacked by the defendant, who struck him, threw him down the stairs, put a knife to his throat, and took his wallet, which contained approximately $120. The defendant then informed the victim that, unless the victim procured $5000 and placed it in a mailbox at a designated address by 8 p.m. that night, the defendant would show the purported photographs to the victim's wife. The victim proceeded to make telephone arrangements for the procurement and placement of the money according to the defendant's instructions. The defendant and Percoco left the premises together.

Thereafter, the victim reported the incident to the police, who subsequently arrested the defendant and Percoco. Percoco was charged with attempt to commit larceny [17 Conn.App. 360] in the first degree by extortion. The defendant and Percoco were originally scheduled to be tried [17 Conn.App. 361] in the same proceeding, but the court granted Percoco's motion to sever. Her trial was scheduled to follow the defendant's.

During the course of his trial, the defendant called Percoco as a witness. Percoco was questioned in an offer of proof outside the presence of the jury. Initially, in response to defense counsel's questions, she gave her name and testified that she knew the defendant. She refused to say how long she had known the defendant, asserting her rights under the fifth and fourteenth amendments. She went on to answer questions as to her age and birthdate. She refused to answer a question inquiring where she had been living on February 3, 1987, the date of the incident in question, again citing her fifth amendment privilege. She answered in the affirmative a question about whether she had been receiving public assistance during February, 1987. Thereafter, in obedience to the court's order directing her to answer yes or no, Percoco affirmed that she had prepared a letter or written statement addressed to the defendant sometime after February 3, 1987. Relying on the fifth amendment privilege, she refused to answer all other questions. [1]

Page 190

[17 Conn.App. 362] Upon completing his unsuccessful line of questioning, defense counsel requested the court's permission to call Percoco to the stand in front of the jury to ask her those questions that she had willingly answered without asserting a fifth amendment privilege. The state's attorney objected. After a discussion between counsel and the court regarding the relevance of the testimony Percoco would willingly offer (i.e., her name, age, the fact that she knew the defendant, the fact that she was receiving public assistance, and the fact that she had sent a written document to the defendant), the state moved that the court not permit Percoco to take the stand as a witness Before the jury. Percoco's counsel argued that Percoco had an "absolute right not to testify to anything incriminating" and that she had indicated[17 Conn.App. 363] to him that she was "not willing to answer any questions at all." The court then questioned Percoco, who reiterated her decision not to answer certain questions. [2] Thereafter, the court ruled that questioning of Percoco in the presence of the jury would not be permitted.

The question in this appeal is whether the court erred in permitting Percoco to exercise a "blanket privilege" by refusing to answer any and all questions in front of the jury. The defendant argues that the court's decision in this regard resulted in the denial of his right to compulsory process under article first, § 8, of the Connecticut constitution and his statutory right under General Statutes § 54-153 to have witnesses summoned on his behalf. These claims are without merit.

Under the circumstances of this case, the trial court did not err in refusing to compel the witness to testify Before the jury. At the time she was called to testify at the defendant's trial, Percoco was awaiting trial on charges based on the same alleged facts and circumstances that gave rise to the charges brought against ...


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