Argued October 13, 2015
Appeal from Superior Court, judicial district of Fairfield, Kavanewsky, J.
Glenn W. Falk, assigned counsel, for the appellant (defendant).
Susann E. Gill, supervisory assistant state’s attorney, with whom, on the brief, were John C. Smriga, state’s attorney, Joseph T. Corradino, senior assistant state’s attorney, and Peter D. Markle, assistant United States attorney, for the appellee (state).
Gruendel, Mullins and Sullivan, Js. [*]
The defendant, Efrain Johnson, appeals from the judgment of conviction, rendered after a jury trial, of one count of felony murder in violation of General Statutes § 53a-54c and one count of kidnapping in the first degree in violation of General Statutes § 53a-92 (a) (2) (A) for his participation in events that led to the death of the victim, Tina Johnson. On appeal, the defendant claims that (1) there was insufficient evidence to sustain either of his convictions and (2) the trial court improperly instructed the jury on the third element of felony murder. We affirm the judgment of the trial court.
By way of an amended information dated December 18, 2013, the state charged the defendant with six offenses: as a principal in the felony murders of three individuals, namely, the victim, James Reid, and Basil Williams (counts one, two, and three, respectively), and as a principal in the kidnapping in the first degree for those same people (counts four, five, and six, respectively). On the basis of the evidence presented at trial, the jury reasonably could have found the following facts. For most of the time relevant to this case, Azibo Aquart headed a criminal organization selling crack cocaine and marijuana in certain cities in southern Connecticut. As part of this operation, Azibo used certain apartments at 215 Charles Street in Bridgeport, in particular using apartment 211 on the second floor to conduct transactions. Azibo considered the apartments his ‘‘turf’’ and had driven away competitors on prior occasions.
Azibo’s enterprise involved a number of individuals in a variety of tasks. Two such confederates were Azibo’s brother, Azikiwe Aquart,  and Rodney Womble. Other individuals employed by Azibo included: Frankie Hodges, who sold crack cocaine out of apartment 211 at 215 Charles Street; John Taylor, who sold marijuana on Azibo’s behalf in Norwalk; Lashika Johnson, the defendant’s sister, who sold crack cocaine and marijuana on behalf of Azibo and, later, Azikiwe, and who was dating Azibo for much of the time relevant to this case; and the defendant, who purchased marijuana from Azibo both for personal use and to resell. A number of the individuals working for Azibo’s drug enterprise either began as customers or were otherwise users of Azibo’s product themselves.
During much of August, 2005, the victim, Reid, and Williams lived in apartment 101 at 215 Charles Street. Both the victim and Reid used crack cocaine and regularly purchased it from Azibo’s operation in apartment 211.
In early August, 2005, the quality of the crack cocaine that Azibo was selling in 215 Charles Street decreased substantially. At about this time, the victim stopped purchasing crack cocaine from Azibo’s operation on the second floor and began selling crack cocaine out of apartment 101. As a consequence, Azibo began losing a number of customers.
Azibo was displeased by the victim’s actions and subsequently attempted on at least two occasions to break into apartment 101 with the assistance of various confederates. During one such instance, Hodges heard a knock on the door of apartment 211 in the middle of the night. Looking through the peephole, Hodges observed Azibo, who was wearing black clothing, a black bandana, and plastic gloves and motioning for Hodges to join him in the hallway. Azibo whispered to Hodges to go to the first floor and knock on the door to a specific apartment. As Hodges and Azibo headed downstairs, Hodges perceived that three people were in the second floor laundry room; although he avoided looking at the people’s faces, he could see that all of them also were wearing plastic gloves. While Azibo hid in the stairwell, Hodges knocked on the door to apartment 101, but nobody came to the door. Relieved that no one had answered, Hodges informed Azibo and returned to the second floor while Azibo and the three other individuals went downstairs.
Taylor also was present for two of the attempts to enter the first floor apartment. In the first attempt, Taylor received a phone call from Azibo. Taking the train from Norwalk to Bridgeport, Taylor met up with Azikiwe and Azibo; at Azibo’s direction, the group drove to a Walgreens store, where Azibo purchased duct tape. The three then drove to the diner near 215 Charles Street. By the time they arrived at the diner, it was dark outside. The group waited at the diner until Azibo got a phone call, at which point they went out to the parking lot. The defendant met the three men in the parking lot of the diner. He brought two bats with him, giving one to Azikiwe and retaining the other. The bats were the first weapons that Taylor observed among the four men. In the parking lot, Azibo told Taylor, Azikiwe, and the defendant that there were people selling drugs out of his building, ‘‘[h]e had a problem’’ with this, and the group was going to go in and ‘‘confront them.’’ The four men voluntarily put on masks and latex gloves provided by Azikiwe,  entered the building, and waited down the hall while a young woman knocked on the door to apartment 101. When no one answered, Azibo, Azikiwe, and Taylor went upstairs, and the defendant left with the bats.
A second attempt involving Taylor to enter apartment 101 occurred a few days after the first attempt. During the day on August 23, 2005, the defendant contacted Azibo about getting more marijuana. Azibo brought the marijuana over to the defendant and, giving the defendant two additional bags, stated that he might need a favor later. That evening, the defendant, with the assistance of Lashika and others, promoted a party at a Bridgeport club. Between approximately 1:30 to 2:30 a.m. on August 24, 2005, the group finished cleaning up and went to a restaurant in Orange. While there, Lashika received a phone call from Azibo, who asked to speak with the defendant. The defendant did not look upset after receiving this phone call. After finishing their meal, Lashika and the defendant left the restaurant inseparate vehicles. Returning home, Lashika saw Azibo outside her apartment, though she did not see the defendant; after seeing Azibo, Lashika went to sleep.
Taylor also received a phone call from Azibo and drove to Bridgeport that night, where he met up with Azibo and Azikiwe. Azikiwe drove the group to the parking lot underneath the apartments at 215 Charles Street. Exiting the car, Taylor saw the defendant walking up to them. The defendant again brought two bats with him, which were the first weapons that Taylor had observed among the four men on this occasion as well, and all of the men put on latex gloves and masks provided by Azikiwe. Taking care not to be seen, the group went upstairs to apartment 101. During this period, Taylor observed that both the defendant and Azikiwe were armed with baseball bats, while Azibo had a gun. Once there, one or more members of the group forced open the door to apartment 101, and the four men entered the apartment.
Inside the apartment, Azibo instructed Taylor to stand by the living room window and to take a lookout position. Azibo and Azikiwe then proceeded to use duct tape to bind the victim and Reid in the first bedroom. While duct taping these two individuals, Azibo’s gloves ripped, and he replaced them; Azikiwe similarly replaced his gloves while in the apartment. The defendant likewise participated in binding the victim’s wrists and ankles to some degree. While in the apartment, Taylor also observed the defendant standing in the hallway by the bathroom near the first bedroom. Walking between the window at which he was stationed and the bedroom, Taylor saw both Azibo and Azikiwe strike the victim and Reid in the head multiple times with the baseball bats. At some point while the men were in the apartment, Williams was bound and injuries similar to those suffered by the victim and Reid were inflicted upon him. Additionally, one of the four participants inserted several screws into the doorjamb of the front door from the inside before leaving through the window. Again, Taylor did not observe the defendant being threatened by, or try to stop, Azibo and Azikiwe during their time in apartment 101.
Eventually, the four left the apartment: Taylor and Azikiwe in one vehicle, and the defendant and Azibo in another. The defendant observed a black drill in a bag that Azibo brought with him to the car after leaving the apartment. The defendant, Azibo, and Azikiwe reconvened at Lashika’s apartment, where the defendant frequently stayed. Lashika was awakened by voices in her living room, two of which she was able to identify as the defendant and Azibo. Leaving her bedroom, she discovered the defendant, Azibo, and Azikiwe sitting in the living room. Azibo and Azikiwe were wearing only undershirts, shorts, and socks. Azibo asked Lashika to take the garbage bags and a black electric drill belonging to Azibo to a dumpster down the street. Lashika disposed of the bags as requested, wearing plastic gloves to move the items. When she returned, Azibo asked her to move his car and retrieve clothing for him from his apartment, which she did. Azibo, Azikiwe, and the defendant were all there when she came back from this second errand.
Later that morning, the victim’s son, Leroy Whittin-gham, attempted to call his mother multiple times, but was unable to reach her. At or about 10 a.m., he walked over to his mother’s apartment; getting no response when he knocked on her front door, he walked around the side of the building to the window of her bedroom. Discovering the window open, Whittingham pushed the blinds aside and saw the victim and Reid. Both parties were bound in duct tape on the floor, and there was blood on the floor and ceiling. Whittingham entered the apartment and called 911 from his cell phone. An ambulance and police were dispatched.
Karen O’Donnell, an emergency medical technician for American Medical Response, and her partner, Rosanna Mendoza, received the call at approximately 10:15 a.m. Driving toward the address to which they were directed, O’Donnell saw a person waving them down and pointing to the apartment building behind the diner. O’Donnell and her partner entered the building; while they were walking up the stairs toward the apartment, Whittingham kicked open the front door. Discovering the victim and Reid in the first bedroom and Williams in the second bedroom, O’Donnell and her partner quickly determined that all three residents were deceased.
Investigators processed the apartment over the course of three days. They discovered the screws that had been affixed to the front door and door frame from inside the apartment, which would have prevented the door from being opened. Investigators also discovered various items and removed them from the apartment for further examination; these items included pieces of latex and latex gloves, samples of blood-like substances, the duct tape used to bind the head, hands, and feet of the three residents, and two plastic bags stuck together with duct tape. Additionally, after removing the duct tape binding the victim’s wrists, investigators discovered a piece of latex attached to the inside of the duct tape. No weapons were recovered from the apartment.
The items collected were turned over to the state forensic laboratory, and forensic testing determined that many of the fingerprints that were discovered in the apartment or on the items seized as evidence were attributable to Azikiwe and Azibo. DNA was also extracted from the various gloves, latex fragments, and other items recovered from apartment 101, and was submitted for further testing. This testing compared DNA profiles developed from these recovered samples to profiles of known samples taken from the involved parties. The profiles developed for each sample were then cross-referenced with a database, which allows the technicians to determine the frequency with which an individual within the three major population groups of Connecticut (African-American, Caucasian, or Hispanic) would be expected to be a contributor. This testing identified Azikiwe, Azibo, and the defendant as contributors to the various samples, while none of the three of them or Taylor could be eliminated as a contributor to other samples. Only the defendant was a contributor to the sample of DNA taken from the latex fragment recovered from the duct tape binding the victim’s wrists; each of the other known samples was eliminated. The expected frequency of a person being a contributor to that particular sample was one in seven billion individuals from the three population groups.
Frank Evangelista, associate medical examiner for the state, conducted the autopsy of the victim in August, 2005. External and internal examinations revealed profound and substantial injuries to the victim’s wrist, face, skull, and brain. These injuries, both external and internal, were consistent with blunt force trauma and would have required multiple blows. Consequently, Evangelista concluded that the victim’s death had been caused by blunt head trauma inflicted by another party. The autopsies of Reid and Williams revealed that they had suffered similar injuries, which caused their deaths.
A few days after August 24, 2005, the defendant went to a music concert with Lashika, Azibo, and Azikiwe, and when the defendant’s sister drove him to Philadelphia a few weeks later, Azikiwe joined them. Although the defendant did not know that Azikiwe would be joining them on the trip to Philadelphia, he did not voice any reluctance about Azikiwe joining them. When Lashika eventually inquired about what happened at 215 Charles Street, the defendant responded that he had not hurt or killed anyone, though he had ‘‘roughed somebody up, ’’ that he had helped tie up someone, and that the group had gotten rid of the bats they had with them in the apartment.
On March 6, 2007, the defendant was interviewed by Christopher Munger, a special agent with the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), at its Bridgeport office. When asked about his involvement in the events at 215 Charles Street, the defendant changed his story multiple times. He first claimed that he had not been there for seven to nine years. When told that his DNA had been recovered from apartment 101, the defendant asked if he could ‘‘start over.’’ In his second version of events, the defendant told the agent that he had been asked by Azibo on August 23, 2005, to go up to the door and pretend to be interested in buying crack cocaine, that he got into a verbal altercation with the woman who opened the door, that during this incident, he spit in her face, she slammed the door, and that he left afterward. When told that the DNA had been recovered from the latex glove fragment in the duct tape bindings, the defendant asked to start over again. This time, the defendant provided an account of his involvement that placed him in the apartment binding the victim’s wrists and feet with duct tape on the day that she was killed.
Over the course of the investigation, cell phones were seized from the defendant and Azikiwe, and investigating detectives became aware of a phone number that ultimately was attributed to Azibo. Information was obtained both from these cell phones, and from records of the associated service providers for these phones and numbers associated with Womble, Taylor, the victim, and Lashika. Analyzing this information, agents with the FBI were able to identify a number of calls during the days leading up to the murders between the phones associated with Azibo, Azikiwe, the defendant, and Taylor. In particular, this information showed that: the phone seized from the defendant had been in contact with the phone associated with Azibo seven times on August 24, 2005, the first time being at 1:47 a.m. and the last at 5:50 a.m.; the last phone to call the phone associated with Azibo was the phone associated with Taylor; there was no contact between the phone associated with Azibo and any other phone between 5:04 and 5:43 a.m.; and the first number that the phone associated with Azibo called after 5:43 a.m. on August 24, 2005, was the phone associated with the defendant.
Following a jury trial, the defendant was found guilty of felony murder and kidnapping involving the victim; the jury also found the defendant not guilty as to all other charges and lesser included offenses. The trial court, Kavanewsky, J., sentenced the defendant to a total effective term of fifty years imprisonment. This appeal followed. Additional facts will be discussed as necessary.
First, the defendant claims that the evidence did not support his convictions for felony murder or kidnapping in the first degree, arguing that there was insufficient evidence to show that he possessed the requisite intent to commit an assault or kidnapping, respectively. We disagree.
‘‘The standard of review we apply to a claim of insufficient evidence is well established. In reviewing the sufficiency of the evidence to support a criminal conviction we apply a two-part test. First, we construe the evidence in the light most favorable to sustaining the verdict. Second, we determine whether upon the facts so construed and the inferences reasonably drawn therefrom the [finder of fact] reasonably could have concluded that the cumulative force of the evidence established guilt beyond a reasonable doubt.’’ (Internal quotation marks omitted.) State v. Crespo, 317 Conn. 1, 16, 115 A.3d 447 (2015). ‘‘On appeal, we do not ask whether there is a reasonable view of the evidence that would support a reasonable hypothesis of innocence. We ask, instead, whether there is a reasonable view of the evidence that supports the [finder of fact’s] verdict of guilty.’’ (Internal quotation marks omitted.) Id., 17.
Both of the defendant’s sufficiency claims go to whether he had the requisite specific intent to commit the crimes for which he was convicted. Pursuant to General Statutes § 53a-3 (11), ‘‘[a] person acts ‘intentionally’ with respect to a result or to conduct described by a statute defining an offense when his conscious objective is to cause such result or to engage in such conduct . . . .’’ ‘‘Intent is generally proven by circumstantial evidence because direct evidence of the accused’s state of mind is rarely available. . . . Therefore, intent is often inferred from conduct . . . and from the cumulative effect of the circumstantial evidence and the rational inferences drawn therefrom. . . . Intent is a question of fact, the determination of which should stand unless the conclusion drawn by the trier is an unreasonable one.’’ (Citation omitted; internal quotation marks omitted.) State v. Booth, 250 Conn. 611, 656, 737 A.2d 404 (1999), cert. denied sub nom. Brown v. Connecticut, 529 U.S. 1060, 120 S.Ct. 1568, 146 L.Ed.2d 471 (2000). ‘‘[I]ntent may be inferred from the events leading up to, and immediately following, the conduct in question . . . the accused’s physical acts and the general surrounding circumstances. . . . An accused’s own words . . . constitute particularly compelling, direct evidence of his intent.’’ (Citations omitted.) State v. Winot, 294 Conn. 753, 768, 988 A.2d 188 (2010). We will examine in turn the evidence regarding each of the defendant’s convictions.
The defendant first argues that there was insufficient evidence that he entered the victim’s apartment with the intent to commit an assault therein, which was required to sustain his conviction of the felony murder charge. We disagree.
In count one of the amended information, the state charged the defendant with felony murder for the victim’s death in the course of and in furtherance of a burglary in the third degree, specifically, a burglary in which the defendant and his associates unlawfully ...